- It was identified by psychologists [David Dunning](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Dunning) and [Justin Kruger](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justin_Kruger) in a 1999 study.
- This identification derived from the criminal [case of McArthur Wheeler](https://steemit.com/steemstem/@rsc227/the-curious-case-of-mcarthur-wheeler), who robbed two banks while his face was covered with lemon juice because he thought that the juice would make it invisible.
- Is a [cognitive bias](/zettel/cognitive-bias) hypothesis in which people with low ability at a given task overestimate their ability at that task.
- Comes from people's inability to recognize their lack of ability and poor self-awareness.
- Comes from people's ignorance of a given activity's standards of performance.
- If you don't have the competency, you can't know you don't have competency in a task. The skills you need to produce the right response about your competency are the same skills you need to know what a right response is.
- Deficits in skill and expertise create a two-prolonged problem.
1. People perform poorly in the domain in which they're incompetent.
2. The incompetence makes them unable to recognize their mistakes.
- [Dunning-Kruger Effect 101](https://twitter.com/SahilBloom/status/1350077522935832576)
- [Dunning–Kruger effect](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunning%E2%80%93Kruger_effect)
- [The Dunning-Kruger Effect](https://www.verywellmind.com/an-overview-of-the-dunning-kruger-effect-4160740)